All posts by @Heathersimplementmakers

Threshing by horse power 

11950309_433679340158705_2764805116676802979_oHorses provided an important source of power for a range of grain processing activities on the farm such as threshing and dressing from the late eighteenth century onwards.  The remains of that horse power can still be seen on some Scottish farms.  Some farms, especially smaller ones and crofts, had a “horse walk”, a raised, circular platform, in part of the farm steading.  This was linked to a drive-shift which powered a mill.  On the larger farms, there were horse mill buildings.  These can be easily recognised: they are generally round(ish) 12440695_433679270158712_3285902050198429938_obuildings with pantile or slate roofs with full-height openings between sections in the wall to provide ventilation from the working animals.  Next to them was a building in which was a mill. 

It isn’t often that you see horse powered threshing and dressing activities at rallies in Scotland.  In 2014 the Strathnairn Vintage Rally 10631196_433679153492057_5950504597835445139_ohad a working demonstration of a horse powered thresher, a “Marvel” was driven by a Bentall horse gear from 1865.  The “Marvel” was developed by James Ferries & Co., Inverness, in 1929.

Two horses were used in the demonstration.  One was attached to each arm of the gear mechanism.  Each walked walked round in a circle, and as they did, they drove a drive shaft which was attached to the dresser, and which powered it.  Quite a sight to see!

The photographs were taken at the Strathnairn Vintage Rally, September 2014.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Hand power! 

12471460_431597457033560_7102150960062843834_oHave you ever stopped to look at how many forms of power there are around the rally fields? There is hand power, foot power, horse power, steam power, petrol power, diesel power, gas power …

12487247_431597490366890_4895233506103316317_oThere are a number of examples of machines powered by hand around the rally fields and agricultural museums. They include some of the older exhibits – hand thrashers, turnip cutters and a range of barn machinery as well as lawn mowers. And, of course, the early tractors had to be started by hand. 

Here is a selection of photographs of machines powered by hand. What other ones do you remember?

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Patent corn rick stands: all wrought-iron framing, with heavy cast-iron pillars

Scotland was an important centre for the manufacture of corn rick stands.

12640341_437160613143911_3134583220531331349_o In the early 1870s T. Pearson & Co., Waterloo Iron Works, Glasgow, claimed that it was the “largest Makers in the world of the Corn Rick Stand.”  It asserted that “T. Pearson & Co. made only one quality of their Prize Rick Stands, and that quality is known universally to be the Cheapest, the Strongest, and most perfect in the market.”

Its pillars were “Cast-Iron, very massive, with a Cap, at the top, of a mushroom shape, to exclude vermin, and stand about 27 inches above the ground.  The Framework on the top is entirely of Wrought-Iron, of a most substantial character, with all the bars dovetailing into the Pillars; and the whole is fitted together in the most simple manner, without a single Bolt or Pin, so that all the Bars and Pillars fit universally.  The Stands-18, 20, and 22 feet diameter-have an inner row of Pillars.”

“An important distinction in the make of these Stands, and which accounts accounts for their great efficiency and durability, consists in the Bars of the Framework being made of a much heavier size of iron than is usual; also, in their being made to dovetail into the notches on the top of the Pillars, a plan which secures the whole Stand being tightly bound together, and therefore imparts to it a greater strength and solidity.”

While most stands were round, Pearson also made oblong stands. The company notes:

12622488_437160676477238_8574457355380267044_o“To met the requirements of certain districts of the country, T. Pearson & Co. can confidently recommend this peculiar form of Rick Stand, as combining a strength and firmness of construction that cannot be obtained by any other principle. All the Bars in the Framework dovetail into the Pillars; and they not only can be put up or wholly removed at pleasure, but likewise every six feet in length of the Rick Stand can be taken away as the grain is removed, so as to allow the carts to back close up to the remaining portion of the stack.

“This form of stand is found equally suitable for Wheat, Barley, or Oats. No screw, bolt, or pin being required, it can be put up or taken down by a farm-servant in a few minutes.  Premiums have been awarded it by the principal Agricultural Meetings throughout the Kingdom, and numerous and flattering Testimonials have been received, commending its great utility and cheapness, while urging earnestly its adoption by the Farming interest generally.
Another advantage peculiar to this form of Stand is the important one, viz:-that it can be made of any size.  The smallest Stand of 10 feet by 8 feet can be continued, if wished, in an unbroken line for 100 feet, or for any longer or shorter distance; and the larger sized ones can be thrown into two or more of a smaller dimension, at any future time, if necessary, or vice versa.  T. P. & Co. send the necessary Pillars where this arrangement may be desired, at a small extra cost.”

Pearson noted that the advantages of the corn rick stands was:

12646623_437160713143901_8494419928566318007_o“They afford a Perfect protection from the ravages of Vermin-insure a Thorough Ventilation throughout the Stack-preserve the Grain from Damp-secure to the Farmer the great advantage of Early Stacking-give a much Drier Sample, from the superior Ventilation effected-save the Waste-occasioned by stacking on the ground-act as a prevention against Fire-save to the Farmer from £15 to £25 every year, where twelve of the smallest-sized-ones are used-are most valuable as an Investment, giving the Purchaser, on an average, nearly Forty per Cent, annually on his First outlay-have in numerous instances paid themselves in One Year-are Cheaper than any description of Stone or Wooden Stand-will last for an age, if Painted occasionally-and finally, can be put up or taken down in a few minutes by any Farm-Servant.”

So Pearson’s corn stands and stands had plenty of advantages for the Scottish farmer!

Source: North British Agriculturist.

The photographs of the Gibson & Son of Edinburgh Pillars were taken in Ross-shire, December 2015.  They are made on a similar principle to those of Pearson’s prize patent corn rick stands.  The include a centre stack and one of the edge stacks.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Alexander Jack of Maybole

The firm name of Alexander Jack of Maybole, or Alexander Jack & Sons, Maybole, was well-known throughout Scotland from the 1830s until the early 1970s.  It was associated especially with potato diggers and raisers and mowers and reapers.

12471447_431589477034358_6362274736473008470_oThe company was highly renowned, even from its early days. Its founder, Alexander Jack, died in June 1877.  The North British Agriculturist carried an obituary in its columns of 13 June 1877:

“The late Mr Alexander Jack of Maybole-We regret to have to record the death, on Wednesday last, of Mr Alexander Jack, senior 12646884_437178846475421_7377053484203428762_opartner of the well-known firm of Alexander Jack & Sons, agricultural implement makers, maypole.  At the outset of his career, Mr Jack was apprenticed as a joiner, and afterwards carried on successfully the business of a wood-merchant at Auchendrane, a few miles out of Maybole.  About thirty years ago, he removed to Maybole, to meet the requirements of his yearly increasing trade.  He subsequently applied himself to the manufacture of agricultural implements with such a large measure 12605296_437179486475357_69092981555362350_oof success that his fame soon spread, and since then the firm of which he was the distinguished head have been among the foremost prize-winners wherever their implements have been exhibited.  Mr Jack, like most men who have won their way to enviable distinction, took an intelligent and lively interest in all the affairs of his farm.  Last year, in the course of an American tour, he visited the works of several of the leading implement makers in the United States.  His loss is lamented by a wide circle of friends, particularly in the neighbourhood of Maybole, which has largely profited by the local industry of which he was the founder.”

For further information on the company Alexander Jack & Sons, Maybole, see: http://www.maybole.org/hi…/articles/alexanderjackandsons.htm

The photograph of the Jack hay bogie was taken at the Borders Vintage Rally, 2015.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Another member of the Wallace dynasty: Robert Wallace 

We have mentioned in recent posts that there were a number of agricultural implement makers with the surname Wallace.  John Wallace & Sons, Glasgow, was the most famous and eminent of these implement and machine makers.

One of the members of that family, Robert Wallace, made an important contribution to the making of agricultural implements and machines in Ayrshire.  The Scottish Farmer described his work as an implement and machine maker in his obituary, published on 26 September 1903: 

11236559_427755940751045_1602682527052120820_o“Mr Robert Wallace, implement maker, Whitletts, near Ayr, who died on Friday last at Tarbert, Loch Fyne, the residence of his daughter, was a notable Ayrshire man, and the father of the Scottish implement trade. He was in his eighty-third year.  Until a few years ago he took an active part in conducting his implement business at Whitletts, which he successfully carried on for over forty years, but owing to the infirmities of old age.  He had lately to retire therefrom. Mr Wallace belonged to a family long connected with agricultural implement making, his father in the early years of last century being a country blacksmith and implement maker in Galston, and in his day a famed plough maker.  His elder brother was the late John Wallace, of Graham Square, Glasgow; and another brother emigrated to New Zealand, and there carried on an implement trade until his death.

11235453_427755214084451_5926919085635695724_oOver forty years ago Mr Wallace turned his attention to the manufacture of mowers and reapers, and could claim to be one of the early pioneers of the trade in Scotland.  His last great work was inventing and patenting the disc manure sowers, and the combined double-drill ploughs and manure sowers, the latter machines being much valued by early potato growers.  In early manhood Mr Wallace cast in his lot with the then small band of temperance men, and became a total abstainer, and could recount many a tale of the keen opposition total abstainers had in these early days to endure, but the temperance cause never had a more faithful and true disciple.  For many years, and up till his death, he was an elder in Newton-on-Ayr United Free Church, and took a warm interest in the moral and spiritual welfare of the people.  He was a man of sterling principles, and possessed in a marked degree that spirit of independence so characteristic of the true Scotchman.  He leaves four sons and two daughters to mourn his loss.  The two elder sons carry on the business of ironfounders and implement makers in Castle-Douglas. To all his family, we tender our sympathy in their bereavement.”

Another important contribution made by an eminent family of Scottish implement and machine makers.

The photograph was taken at the National Scottish Tractor Show, September 2014.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Ploughing matches of yesteryear

Ploughing matches have been held in Scotland since the late eighteenth century.  One of the earliest matches was held in Alloa in 1784.  The Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland gave early encouragement to matches – and still does – through the awarding of premiums to ploughmen.  The first ploughing match at which the Society gave awards to was held on 7 November 1801 on the Hoddam estate.

12469491_433693310157308_442322982239843566_oPloughing matches played an important role in developing the skill and technique of ploughing, encouraged a competitive spirit among ploughmen (and plough women), and also stimulated improvements in plough design.  Some plough makers had their own range of competition ploughs: in the mid 1850s Gray & Co, Uddingston, boasted of the awards gained by its competition ploughs.

Henry Stephens, the celebrated agricultural writer, wrote on ploughing matches in 1889.  He provides a number of insights into them:

“Ploughing matches – Although differences of opinion exist as to the usefulness of ploughing-matches, it can hardly be doubted that since their institution the skill of our ploughmen has risen considerably; not but that individual ploughmen could have been found before as dexterous as any of the present day.  This improvement is not to be ascribed to the institution of ploughing-matches alone, for, no doubt, superior construction of implements, a better kept, better matched, superior race of horses, and superior judgement and taste in field labour in the farmer himself, have been potent elements in influencing the handicraft of ploughmen. …
12469491_433693310157308_442322982239843566_oHow ploughing matches are conducted – Ploughing-matches are generally very fairly conducted in Scotland.  They usually take place on lea ground, the ploughing of which is considered the best test of a ploughman’s skill, though drilling is perhaps quite as difficult of correct execution.  The best part of the field is selected for the purpose, and the same extent of ground is allotted to each competitor.  A peg, bearing a number, is fixed in the ground at the end of each lot, which are as many as ploughs entered in competition.  Numbers on slips of paper corresponding to those on the pegs, are drawn by the competing ploughmen, who take the lots as drawn.  Ample time is allowed to finish the ploughing of each lot. Although quickness of time in executing the same extent of work is not to be compared to excellency of execution, it should enter as an element in deciding the question of skill; but this it seldom does at ploughing-matches.  Each competitor is obliged to “feer” his own lot, assort and guide his own horses and trim his plough-irons, without assistance.
Judges at ploughing matches – The judges are brought from a distance, so that they can have no personal interest in the exhibition, and in some cases have been requested to inspect the ground after all the ploughs have been removed, having been kept away from the scene during the time the ploughs were engaged.  This appears to be an objectionable part of the arrangements, which is made on the plea that, were the judges to see the ploughs at work, some particular ones might be recognised by them as belonging to friends, and their minds might thereby be biased in their favour. Such a plea is a poor compliment to the integrity of a judge; and any farmer who 12473896_433693350157304_8542548646593351818_oaccepts that responsible and honoured office, that would allow himself to be influenced by so pitiful consideration, would deserve not only to be objected to on every such occasion, but banished out of society.  One consequence of the exaction of this rule is, loss of patience by the spectators, while the judges are occupying no more than the necessary time for deciding the ploughing of, it may be, a large extent of ground.  The judges ought to be present all the time of the competition, when they could leisurely, calmly, and minutely ascertain the position and depth of the furrow-slices, and mature their thoughts on points which might modify first impressions. Inspection of the finished surface cannot furnish information whether the land has in all respects been correctly ploughed, which can only be obtained by comparing the soles of the furrows while the land is being ploughed.  There is something to be gained in observing the manner in which the ploughman guides his horses in making the best work in the shortest time.”

Some aspects of the ploughing match have changed, while others have remained the same.

Source: Henry Stephens, The book of the Farm, division 1, Edinburgh, 1889, pp. 104-105.

The photographs were taken at the Scottish Ploughing Championships, 2014.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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William Wallace, the other Scottish hero … another chapter

A few weeks ago we posted an account of William Wallace of John Wallace & Sons, Glasgow, from 1894.  The Scottish Farmer published William Wallace’s obituary on May 18, 1912.

While this is important in recording the great William Wallace’s achievements, it also provides a good deal of information about his role within the wider public life of Glasgow, and the important contribution that he made to it.  It also sets out some of the wider history of the eminent firm of John Wallace & Sons, and the wider role of the family within Scottish and world agriculture.

“Mr William Wallace, J.P.
Throughout the agricultural world there will be abiding sorrow at the tidings of ex-Bailie William Wallace, managing director of the well-known firm of John Wallace & Sons (Ltd), implement makers and agents, Glasgow.  Mr Wallace was for many months a sufferer, and he might have said that he had suffered many things of physicians, and had been little the better.  He passed away on Monday, 13th inst., in his own home, 5 Oakley Terrace, Dennistoun, Glasgow, aged sixty-five.

Mr Wallace belonged to an old Ayrshire family, hailing from the parish of Fenwick.  He was born in Dalkeith while his father was foreman in Mushatt’s Foundry in that town.  Subsequently Mr John Wallace removed to Mill of Haldane, in Kilmaronock parish, Dumbartonshire.  There he kept the local “smiddy”, and developed that skill in handling agricultural machinery and implements which eventually went to the establishing of the reputation of his firm as one of the foremost in that trade.  At Mill of Haldane Mr William Wallace and his elder brother, Mr James, who predeceased him, were brought up, and made their first acquaintance with their future trade in the country “smiddy”.  About half a century ago the family removed to Glasgow, and James and William joined their father in founding the firm that has long been in the front.  Mr James Wallace devoted himself more to the mechanical side of the business, and was therefore not so well known publicly as his brother.  Mr William Wallace for many years was the representative of the firm at all the principal shows, and in many of the chief market towns.  He was a first-rate business man, a good salesman, with a fine commercial instinct, and honourable and straightforward to a degree.  Possibly there was in broad Scotland no better known or more widely respected member of the implement trade.  A life member of the principal agricultural societies, he frequently was chosen as the spokesman of his trade when arranging details with these institutions.  He also devoted much time and attention to the work of the Glasgow Agricultural Society, of which he was for various terms a director.

In 1902 Mr Wallace entered the Glasgow Town Council, and soon won a foremost place in its committees.  He was not fond of public speaking, but when occasion required he could give quite a good account of himself at the Council board.  His best work, however, was done in committee, and so highly were his qualities esteemed that after a comparatively short probation he found his way to the bench.  As a magistrate, Bailie Wallace shone.  He was essentially a man of kindly disposition, and aimed at being just. On the bench these qualities had full play, and he was held in much esteem as one of the best of the citizen magistrates. Identified throughout his life with the total abstinence movement, his experiences as a magistrate confirmed him more and more in the belief that the liquor traffic was prejudicial to the best interests of society.  If possible, his total abstinence principles became more pronounced as he advanced in years, and in connection with that matter he was well known to be one of the temperance stalwarts in the licensing bench.  He was a representative of the Town Council on the governing bodies of the West of Scotland Agricultural College and the Glasgow Veterinary College, and he also devoted much attention to the affairs of the Scottish Labour Colony.

Altogether, Bailie Wallace spent a worthy, noble life, working for the good of his fellow-men, and in business relationships securing the cordial goodwill of customers and competitors.  He was universally recognised as a “white man”, one who played the game, and never feared either to express his opinions or to act up to them.  He is survived by Mrs Wallace, who was in all points a most worthy helpmeet, and their family of four sons and one daughter.  Two of the sons-Messrs John F. and Duncan-are in the form of John Wallace & Sons (Ltd); one-Mr Wm B. Wallace, formerly farmed at Broomhouse, Corstorphine, and is now farming in Surrey; and the fourth is in South Africa.  To Mrs Wallace and her family we tender our respectful sympathy.  The funeral, which was private, took place on Thursday to Janefield Cemetary, Glasgow.”

William Wallace, a great name for a great man!

Photograph: the “Richmond” potato planter, made by John Wallace & Sons, Glasgow, c 1914. The photograph was taken at the Strathnairn Vintage Rally and Farming Show, September 2014.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Churning, churning, churning

12191309_416899225170050_5974435911571041537_oIf you were a dairy farmer in Scotland in the 1890s you would have purchased your churns from a number of businesses.  They included Walker & Templeton, Kilmarnock, Alexander Jack & Sons Ltd, Maybole, Dairy Supply Co. Limited, Edinburgh and London, Andrew Wilson, Lanark, Charles Weir, Strathaven, and Willian Sinton Jedburgh.  A number of English firms also had a strong foothold in the country. They included Waide & Sons Ltd, Leeds, and Melotte Separator Sales Co., Bristol. 

One Scottish firm was especially eminent: William Sinton, Jedburgh.  In 1893 the North British Agriculture wrote on his character and reputation:

“Mr William Sinton-To the quiet little border town of Jedburgh belongs the honour of producing, in the person of Mr Sinton, the principal maker of barrel churns in Scotland.  Brought tuna s a cooper to trade, ex-Bailie Sinton has devoted the best part of a lifetime to the manufacture and improvement of churns, and any one who meets him in a showered soon finds out that he is a 12189445_416899095170063_7673833558733803198_opractical man, thoroughly well versed in “chronology”.  The large number of new sorts and sizes of churns which he regularly brings out at every Highland Show will convince one that it is true of churns, as well as of books an sermons, that of making of them “there is no end”.  Mr Sinton, however, seems to have made a hit in his latest invention called the Waverley end-over oval barrel churn. By making an oval churn rotate on the moveable end-over-end principle, and fitting the same with diagonal dashers, so many counter currents are originated that butter of the finest quality “comes” in about a third of the time that it takes with the usual barrel pattern, and that with a less expenditure of labour.  Some two or three years ago Mr Sinton invented and patented a strainer glass eyelet and ventilator combined, by means of which the progress of butter formation is observed without stopping to remove the bung, which ensures the butter milk being strained off at the proper moment, thereby securing the whole of the butter,and that of good quality keeping. Mr Sinton’s works have been greatly enlarged to meet the demands of his trade.  He is held in high esteem in his native town in Roxburghshire.”

An eminent churns maker, making Scottish churning history!

The photographs are of an end-over-end barrel churn made by Dairy Supply Co. Limited, at the Scottish National Tractor Show, Lanark, September 2015.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Mucking out the byre 

Byre-cleaners are an important part of the implements and machines on livestock farms.

One of the muck scrapers in the collection of the Aberdeenshire Farming Museum was made by Auchinachie & Simpson, Keith.

12491949_431588350367804_6603064932988833801_oAuchinachie & Simpson was one of the well-known implement and machine makers in north-east Sotland until 1927.  It was founded in 1866, undertaking its business from Mid Street, Keith.  It moved to Balloch Street in the town by the early 1920s.

The company’s early specialities included ploughs (both swing and wheel), drill ploughs, harrows, grubbers, land rollers and seed sowing machines.  By the early 1920s, it manufactures included ploughs, harrows and grubbers.  The company also acted as agent for a number of leading English makers, including W. N. Nicholson & Son, Newark on Trent, and Walter A. Wood, London, in 1876 and Harrison, McGregor & Co. Leigh, Lancashire, in 1883.

12471864_431588290367810_1553766985281988193_oThe company was a competitive one, entering its manufactures for a number of the trials of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland.  These included the trial of three-tined grubbers in 1885, the trial of grass seed sowing machines in 1887 and the trial of manure distributers in 1899.  It also exhibited at the Highland Show from 1868 onwards, especially when the Show was held in Aberdeen, Inverness and Edinburgh.

The company reorganised itself in May 1919 to become Auchinachie & Simpson Ltd. Its prospectus noted that “the business of Auchinachie & Simpson is one of the oldest of its kind in the north of Scotland, having been established in 1866, since which date it has been continuously carried on with success, the firm has a wide connection in the north of Scotland and elsewhere.  For some years immediately preceding the War, it was developing a connection in the Colonies, and there is every reason to expect that this trade can be resumed and further developed.”

10580745_431588223701150_7777043339031847355_oOne of the first directors of this limited company was James Auchinachie, implement maker, Keith, who had been connected with the business for the last 53 years and had been the sole proprietor for the last ten years.  The business was carried out under the management of Robert Boyd who had been in the employment of the old company for over 20 years.  The company continued to retain its reputation for high quality manufactures.  As the Report of the First Directors notes: “the productions of the company are held in high regard by the agricultural community, and a large number of orders is at present on hand.”

The company was wound up in 1923, and held its final winding up meeting on 25 February 1927.

The photographs were taken at Aberdeenshire Farming Museum, August 2014.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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Mr Elsey’s seed cleaner

One of the regular attenders at the Highland Show until 1919 was Mr William J Elsey, Glen Cottage, 2 Coatbridge Terrace, Murrayfield, Edinburgh.

12466097_431580577035248_2291151326843744482_oWilliam was born in Shrewsbury in 1850, and later moved to Hawksworth, Bing, Nottinghamshire.  He came to Edinburgh around 1894, but retained his links with the south thereafter, advertising himself in the Scottish Farmer as “W. J. Elsey, manufacturer, Hawksworth, Bing, Notts, or Glen Cottage, Murrayfield, Edinburgh”. 

William was a corn and seed machine manufacturer, also making improvements to seed-cleaning machinery, carrying on that work until his death in early 1921.  He had a wide reputation for his seed 12491977_431580510368588_1851569867209963561_ocleaners, also actively promoting his inventions and wares in both the North British Agriculturist and the Scottish farmer from 1894; he attended the Highland Show each year from 1899.  He also sold manufactures from other implement and machine makers, such as W. Rainforth & Sons, Lincoln, in 1906.

The photographs of one of Mr Elsey’s seed cleaners were taken at the Fife Vintage Agricultural Machinery Club Annual Rally and Farming Heritage Show, June 2015.

© 2016 Heather Holmes

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